Chip seal is usually applied with a fog seal afterwards – re-apply every 7 to 10 years. Soft, flexible, polymer modified asphalt emulsion. Seals the surface, including small surface cracks, to protect the road from oxidation (Seals most moderate width cracks for a few years). Keeps water from penetrating the road structure, protects the underlying base, stops the raveling of old pavement, and minimizes the effects of aging. Multiple layers can be applied to address severe cracking and raveling of oxidized/deteriorated pavements, as long as the subgrade is in good condition.
Multiple layers can be installed on prepared gravel surfaces to create a hard road surface and eliminate the need for dust control. Provides a highly skid-resistant surface. Minimum disruption during construction to the traveling public; road is kept open with one way traffic, controlled by flaggers.
Drawbacks: Loose gravel during construction; Needs to be swept a few times over the first winter.